Disfigurement and dating
The design of the iron lung was subsequently improved by using a bellows attached directly to the machine, and John Haven Emerson modified the design to make production less expensive.
These drawbacks led to the development of more modern positive-pressure ventilators and the use of positive-pressure ventilation by tracheostomy.
Patients with residual paralysis were treated with braces and taught to compensate for lost function with the help of calipers, crutches and wheelchairs.
The use of devices such as rigid braces and body casts, which tended to cause muscle atrophy due to the limited movement of the user, were also touted as effective treatments.
The first report of multiple polio cases was published in 1843 and described an 1841 outbreak in Louisiana. How far the virus crept up your spine determined whether you could walk afterward or even breathe. The city closed the swimming pools and we all stayed home, cooped indoors, shunning other children. On Saturday, June 17, 1916, an official announcement of the existence of an epidemic polio infection was made in Brooklyn, New York. The 1916 epidemic caused widespread panic and thousands fled the city to nearby mountain resorts; movie theaters were closed, meetings were canceled, public gatherings were almost nonexistent, and children were warned not to drink from water fountains, and told to avoid amusement parks, swimming pools, and beaches.
Parents waited fearfully every summer to see if it would strike. That year, there were over 27,000 cases and more than 6,000 deaths due to polio in the United States, with over 2,000 deaths in New York City alone. In developed countries during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, improvements were being made in community sanitation, including improved sewage disposal and clean water supplies.
In the Copenhagen epidemic of 1952, large numbers of patients were ventilated by hand ("bagged") by medical students and anyone else on hand, because of the large number of bulbar polio patients and the small number of ventilators available.In 1937, Jungeblut injected polio into the brains of monkeys, and found that many more monkeys that also received vitamin C escaped paralysis than controls - the results seemed to indicate that low doses were more effective than high doses.Jungeblut subsequently confirmed his findings in a larger study, finding that natural vitamin C was more effective than synthetic vitamin C, and as the disease progressed, larger and larger amounts of vitamin C were needed for therapeutic effect.By 1950, the peak age incidence of paralytic poliomyelitis in the United States had shifted from infants to children aged 5 to 9 years; about one-third of the cases were reported in persons over 15 years of age.In the United States, the 1952 polio epidemic would be the worst outbreak in the nation's history, and is credited with heightening parents’ fears of the disease and focusing public awareness on the need for a vaccine.
soon after, widespread epidemics appeared in the United States.